Jitter is the variation in the arrival times of packets in a data stream. It can be caused by a number of factors, including network congestion, routing changes, and hardware problems. Jitter can degrade the performance of applications that require real-time data delivery, such as voice and video over IP (VoIP) and online gaming.
Wander is a long-term variation in the arrival times of packets. It is caused by changes in the network topology, such as the addition or removal of nodes, and by changes in the propagation delay of signals. Wander can cause problems for applications that require a consistent packet delivery time, such as streaming video and audio.
Latency is the time it takes for a packet to travel from its source to its destination. It is affected by a number of factors, including the distance between the source and destination, the type of network, and the amount of traffic on the network. Latency can be a problem for applications that require real-time interaction, such as online gaming and video conferencing.
LTE systems are designed to minimize jitter, wander, and latency. They use a variety of techniques, such as packet scheduling and dynamic resource allocation, to ensure that packets are delivered in a timely manner.
Typical values for jitter, wander, and latency in LTE systems are:
Jitter: < 10 ms
Wander: < 20 ms
Latency: < 50 ms
5G systems are designed to have even lower jitter, wander, and latency than LTE systems. This is because 5G uses a number of new technologies, such as massive MIMO and millimeter wave spectrum, which can deliver faster speeds and lower latency.
6G is still in the early stages of development, but it is expected to have even lower jitter, wander, and latency than 5G. This is because 6G will use even higher frequencies and more advanced technologies, such as terahertz spectrum and artificial intelligence.