To tilt or Not to tilt? That is the question!

Operators do not benefit much from installing sites in rural/remote areas with low user density. They are always looking for maximizing their revenue in any possible way to make it worthwhile.
So they usually insist on wide open Electrical tilts with maximum RS power.

But it does not necessarily bring in the expected results.

Also, in many cases, engineers overshrink the coverage of a cell through extreme tilting to improve service quality but again to no avail.

A common myth about antenna tilt is that LESS gives better coverage, MORE gives better throughput.

I tend to disagree with that.

For highest revenue/performance, our main objective should be to direct the strongest beam of the cell to the most dense/interesting point in the area.

Putting an antenna on a 50 m tower on a 3000 m high mountain with minimum tilt will only serve flying birds.

Excessive downtilt without attention to the point of interest will only hit barren fields and rocks.

We are transferring energy and we should not waste it. Treat the antenna just like a lamp. Focus the beam where it is needed. Don’t just disperse it blindly.

Even without advanced tools like Atoll, it is quite straightforward to calculate the required tilt for directing the beam at the region of interest.

Credits: :point_down:

Actually, there is no good answer to the Tilt Question. Everything has to do with the shape of the antenna vertical beam.

When your site is located at an elevated position, you need to use antennas with wide vertical beam. These antennas are typically the short antennas, with low gain compared to their longer counterparts.

If you install long, high gain, antennas on an elevated site, your coverage area will have the shape of a donut. No coverage close to the site and no coverage far away from the site. You can adjust the diameter of the coverage donut with the tilt - but it will always be a donut with a hole in the middle and nothing after the edge.

The lesson is: install short, lower-gain, antennas on your elevated site to get the wide vertical beam, so that you avoid the donut coverage problem.

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