How space based mobile cellular communication works?

Hello Experts.

Can anyone explain how space based mobile cellular communication works?

AST and other claiming directly access/communication to normal mobile.

Check out NTN study items in 5G.

Yes, those use cases were defined by 3GPP from rel16 itself.

If gNB is on the satellite payload or near to ground ES it will be possible to have direct access by mobiles.

But there will be significant changes in protocols to handle delay etc.

I was asking for 4G.

AST is claiming thar it can work along with Normal L1800 band mobile communication direct with Mobile.

No medium needed in between.

It might be possible with LEO satellites because delays defined by 3gpp already may be sufficient.

No change needed.

Just creat a bearer with those values.