ORAN (Open Radio Access Network) is a specification that defines a new architecture for radio access networks (RANs). It aims to define a RAN architecture that is more open, flexible, and modular than current RAN architectures. ORAN is being developed by the ORAN Alliance, which is a group of telecommunications companies and organizations working together to define and promote the ORAN specification.
In ORAN architecture, the RAN is divided into two main components: the Central Unit (CU) and the Distributed Unit (DU). The CU is responsible for handling high-level functions such as control and signaling, while the DU is responsible for handling low-level functions such as radio frequency (RF) processing and modulation. The CU and DU are connected by an open interface, which allows for the use of different vendors’ equipment and software in the RAN. This modular approach allows for more flexibility and interoperability in the RAN.
4G, 5G, and 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) are all related to wireless communication technology standards. The architecture of these technologies is based on a hierarchical network structure, in which the network is divided into different layers, each with its own specific functions.
In 4G and 5G architectures, the RAN is made up of a number of base stations, which are connected to the core network through a backhaul network. The base stations are responsible for handling the RF processing and modulation, while the core network handles the control and signaling functions.
In 3GPP architecture, the RAN is divided into two main components: the Node B (base station) and the Radio Network Controller (RNC). The Node B is responsible for handling the RF processing and modulation, while the RNC is responsible for handling the control and signaling functions. The RNC is connected to the core network, which handles the high-level functions such as routing and switching.
Overall, ORAN architecture is different from 4G, 5G, and 3GPP architectures in that it is more modular and flexible, and it allows for the use of different vendors’ equipment and software in the RAN.