Diversity & Fading in Microwave Links

  • Diversity is a Way to improve the microwave Link performance

  • There’s multiple types of diversity , common types are :

    1. Space diversity
    2. Frequency diversity
  • Theory of diversity is to receive the signal at the Rx side in 2 frequency channels or through 2 different antennas

  • Diversity aims to improve the performance because the 2 signals received could have different BER or signal strength and different performance

  • We use diversity to solve the fading issues

  • We have mainly 2 types of Fading :

    1. Multipath fading
    2. Rain fading
  • Multipath fading is focused with low frequency channels like 3-15 GHz

  • Rain fading is effective in high frequency range 15-80 GHz

  • From 13-18 GHz microwave Links expect both fading types

  • We can increase the fade margin by using these 2 factors :

    1. Using vertical polarization
    2. Use lower modulation
  • Drawback from using lower modulation :

    1. decreasing the system capacity/ throughput
  • Drawbacks from using diversity :

    1. increasing the system cost since we have to use 2 antennas , or 2 different channels

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