Definition of the concept of ERB coverage area (gNodeB) when using narrow beam pointing generated by MIMO antenna in beamforming (BF) mode

Hi Experts,

I’d like to know about the following topics:

  1. Pointing a narrow beam covers, at maximum gain (up to 3 dB below), a relatively small area around the UE reference point (or UE cluster). How, therefore, is the concept of the coverage area of an ERB, and its correlate, the percentage of coverage area (a statistical parameter that considers the effect of log-normal multipath shading and weights its effects in an area around the ERB)?

  2. When considering the multi-user MIMO mode, with multiple narrow beams… The coverage area of an ERB would be defined considering all the beams pointed at different points in the surrounding area, or for each beam, is an area or sub-area of coverage defined?

  3. In the previous question, the starting point of view was what happens in the vertical plane that contains the ERB and UE antennas. There is also a concern with what happens in the signal distribution in the horizontal plane. In previous generations, a very important related concept is the division of the coverage area by sectors, something that was directly related to the beamwidth of the ERB antennas. For example, using 120º beam antennas, 3 antennas covered the 360º that would characterize the entire area. With multiple beams, one can imagine maintaining this concept and expanding the number of sectors. For example, with widths of 10 degrees per beam, horizontally, 36 would be needed to cover the entire area. From the above, I ask: the concept of the coverage sector remains in 5G, adapted to the multiple beams of the antennas MIMO?

  4. Given the considerable (apparently) change in planning: do the concepts of coverage area and percentage of coverage area remain important for planning? What other related concepts came to be used? On 4G, are they already used?

  5. Given the complexity of using and coordinating multiple beams: in which scenarios and application conditions, will the MIMO strategy with multiple beams be used? The macro scenario is extreme broadband, communication ultra-reliable or massive communication for multiple users? Is the environment outdoors, indoors, or both? Is the band sub-6 GHz or millimeter wave?

  6. Still on the previous question, in the scenarios foreseen for the use of MIMO with multiple beams, another question arises. In which of these beamforming scenarios will be “fixed” and in which will it be adaptive (following cluster of users, with or without the interposition of nulls of the radiation pattern in the directions of other groups considered interference for that cluster)?

  7. Finally, considering all the different aspects of previous generations brought by the multi-user (multi-beam) MIMO approach of 5G discussed here…. How has the link budget analysis been (or needs to be) adapted to address these aspects?

Best regards!