10 steps to learn how the L2 traffic is forwarded in Tx devices

  1. Switch or bridge or even Tx devices works with L2 should have FDB.

  2. FDB is forwarding database , it’s simply the Mac table.

  3. Every time the switch receive frame from any host , it will check the source Mac of frame and save it to FDB.

  4. Then switch will search for the destination Mac in it’s FDB , if it’s know, the switch will forward the frame to the destination.

  5. If the switch can’t find the destination Mac in the table , it will flood the frame.

  6. Flooding means sending the frame out of all ports except the receiving Port.

  7. That’s means all other hosts will receive the frame.

  8. When hosts received the frame from switch, it will check the destination Mac , and only the Host with this Mac will process the frame.

  9. Other hosts will discard the frame.

  10. If the frame is multicast or broadcast , it will be flooded.

This is simply how the switch or Tx L2 devices learn and forward traffic based on mac address.

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